Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma, or stomach cancer, accounts for 90-95% of all gastric malignancies. It is one out of the five most common cancers around the world, and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Incidence in eastern Asia and China is much higher than that of the U.S. Approximately 1 out of every 114 people will be diagnosed with stomach cancer, with men being 2-4 times more likely to be affected than women.
DNA Variant Edit
Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma has been associated with a common DNA variant in the PLCE1 gene in east Asians. In a meta-analysis of 13 case control studies with more than 11,000 subjects, the PLCE1 polymorphism was confirmed to have a statistically significant association with an increase in of GCA. PLCE1 encodes a protein called phospholipase C epsilon 1 that plays a big role in regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. Previous studies have found it's prevalence in the development of skin and intestinal cancers, as well as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. GAC tissue contains significantly more PLCE1 protein than normal tissue.
Risk Factors Edit
Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of gastric carcinomas include:
Cigarette Smoking Edit
Advanced Age Edit
Diet low in fruits, and vegetables Edit
Diets high in salted, smoked and preserved foods Edit
Gastric Heliobacter pylori infections Edit
Intense metaplasia Edit
Male Gender Edit
John Burke & GCA Edit
Genetic factors certainly play a role in the prevalence and magnitude of the cancer but environmental conditions contribute more to differences in risk of the condition. Professor Burke, as well as his father, Greg Mendel have approximately a 1.8x increased chance of developing Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma.
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